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Walker, D. N.. 2000. Pleistocene and Holocene records of Antilocapra americana: a review of the FAUNMAP data. J. V. Pastor and P. M. Lubinski (ed.). Pronghorn past and present: archaeology, ethnography, and biology. Plains Anthropologist Memoir. Plains Anthropological Society, Lincoln.

Waltari, E., and R. P. Guralnick. 2008. Ecological niche modelling of montane mammals in the Great Basin, North America: examining past and present connectivity of species across basins and ranges. Journal of Biogeography. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.01959.x.

Webb, S. D., and E. Simons. 2006. Vertebrate paleontology. Pages 215-246 in S. D. Webb (ed.). First Floridians and last mastodons: the Page-Ladson site in the Aucilla River. Springer, Dordrecht.

Webb, S. D., R. W. Graham, A. D. Barnosky, C. J. Bell, R. Franz, E. A. Hadly, E. L. Lundelius, Jr., H. G. McDonald, R. A. Martin, H. A. Semken, Jr., and D. W. Steadman. 2004. Vertebrate paleontology. Pages 519-538 in A. R. Gillespie, S. C. Porter, and B. F. Atwater (ed.). The Quaternary Period in the United States. Developments in Quaternary science 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Webb, T., III, B. Shuman, and J. W. Williams. 2004. Climatically forced vegetation dynamics in eastern North America during the late Quaternary Period. Pages 459-478 in A. R. Gillespie, S. C. Porter, and B. F. Atwater (ed.). The Quaternary Period in the United States. Developments in Quaternary science 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Webb, T., III, K. H. Anderson, P. J. Bartlein, and R. S. Webb. 1998. Late Quaternary climate change in eastern North America: a comparison of pollen-derived estimates with climate model results. Quaternary Science Reviews 17:587-606.

Whitaker, J. O., Jr.. 2004. Sorex cinereus. Mammalian Species 743:1-9.

Whitaker, J. O., Jr., and R. L. Richards. 2005. Shrews of Indiana: late Pleistocene to present. Pages 9-30 in J. F. Merritt, S. Churchfield, R. Hutterer, and B. I. Sheftel (ed.). Biology of Shrews II. International Society of Shrew Biologists, New York.

Whitmore, J.. 2004 North American and Greenland modern pollen data for multi-scale paleoecological and paleoclimatic applications Master's Thesis. University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Whitmore, J., K. Gajewski, M. Sawada, J. W. Williams, B. Shuman, P. J. Bartlein, T. Minckley, A. E. Viau, T. Webb, III , S. Shafer, P. Anderson, and L. Brubaker. 2005. Modern pollen data from North America and Greenland for multi-scale paleoenvironmental applications. Quaternary Science Reviews 24:1828-1848.

Whorley, J. R., S. T. Alvarez-Castañeda, and G. J. Kenagy. 2004. Genetic structure of desert ground squirrels over a 20-degree-latitude transect from Oregon through the Baja California peninsula. Molecular Ecology 13:2709-2720.

Willard, D. A., C. E. Bernhardt, D. A. Korejwo, and S. R. Meyers. 2005. Impact of millennial-scale Holocene climate variability on eastern North American terrestrial ecosystems: pollen-based climatic reconstruction. Global and Planetary Change 47:17-35.

Willard, D. A., C. E. Bernhardt, G. R. Brooks, T. M. Cronin, T. Edgar, and R. Larson. 2007. Deglacial climate variability in central Florida, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 251:366-382. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.04.016.

Willard, D. A., L. M. Weimer, and W. L. Riegel. 2001. Pollen assemblages as paleoenvironmental proxies in the Florida Everglades. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 113:213-235.

Willard, D. A., T. M. Cronin, and S. Verardo. 2003. Late-Holocene climate and ecosystem history from Chesapeake Bay sediment cores, USA. The Holocene 13:201-214.

Williams, D. R.. 2009 Small mammal faunal stasis in Natural Trap Cave (Pleistocene-Holocene), Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Williams, H. A.. 2005 Spatial precipitation variability, snowfall, and historical bison occurrence in the northwest United States Master's thesis. Georgia State University, Atlanta.

Williams, J. W.. 2003. Variations in tree cover in North America since the last glacial maximum. Global and Planetary Change 35:1-23.

Williams, J. W., and B. Shuman. 2008. Obtaining accurate and precise environmental reconstructions from the modern analog technique and North American surface pollen dataset. Quaternary Science Reviews 27:669-687. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.01.004.

Williams, J. W., and S. T. Jackson. 2007. Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5:483-490. doi:10.1890/070051.

Williams, J. W., and S. T. Jackson. 2003. Palynological and AVHRR observations of modern vegetational gradients in eastern North America. The Holocene 13:485-497.

Williams, J. W., B. N. Shuman, and T. Webb, III. 2001. Dissimilarity analyses of late-Quaternary vegetation and climate in eastern North America. Ecology 82:3346-3362.

Williams, J. W., B. N. Shuman, T. Webb, III, P. J. Bartlein, and P. L. Luduc. 2004. Late-Quaternary vegetation dynamics in North America: scaling from taxa to biomes. Ecological Monographs 74:309-334.

Williams, J. W., B. Shuman, and P. J. Bartlein. 2009. Rapid responses of the prairie-forest ecotone to early Holocene aridity in mid-continental North America. Global and Planetary Change 66:195-207. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.10.012.

Williams, J. W., B. Shuman, P. J. Bartlein, J. Whitmore, K. Gajewski, M. Sawada, T. Minckley, S. Shafer, A. E. Viau, T. Webb III, P. Anderson, L. Brubaker, C. Whitlock, and O. K. Davis. 2006. An atlas of pollen-vegetation-climate relationships for the United States and Canada. Contribution Series 43. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, Dallas, USA.

Williams, J. W., P. J. Bartlein, and T. Webb III. 2000. Data-model comparisons for eastern North America - inferred biomes and climate values from pollen data. Pages 77-86 in P. Braconnot (ed.). Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP): Proceedings of the third PMIP workshop, La Huardière, Quèbec, Canada, 4-8 October 1999. WCRP-111, ICPO Publications Series 34, PAGES Report 2000-1, WMO/TD 1007.

Williams, J. W., R. L. Summers, and T. Webb, III. 1998. Applying plant functional types to construct biome maps from eastern North American pollen data: comparisons with model results. Quaternary Science Reviews 17:607-627.

Williams, J. W., T. Webb, III, P. H. Richard, and P. Newby. 2000. Late Quaternary biomes of Canada and the eastern United States. Journal of Biogeography 27:585-607.

Willis, K. J., and H. J. B. Birks. 2006. What is natural? The need for a long-term perspective in biodiversity conservation. Science 314:1261-1265.

Willis, K. J., M. B. Araujo, K. D. Bennett, B. Figueroa-Rangel, C. A. Froyd, and N. Myers. 2007. How can a knowledge of the past help to conserve the future? Biodiversity conservation and the relevance of long-term ecological studies. Philosphical Transactions of the Royal Society Biological Sciences 362(1478):175-187.

Wing, S. L., F. Herrera, C. A. Jaramillo, C. Gómez-Navarro, P. Wilf, and C. C. Labandeira. 2009. Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejón Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:18627-18632. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905130106.

Woodman, N., and D. A. Croft. 2005. Fossil shrews from Honduras and their significance for Late Glacial evolution in body size (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis). Fieldiana Geology 51:1-30.

Woodman, N., and J. W. Branstrator. 2008. The Overmyer Mastodon (Mammut americanum) from Fulton County, Indiana. American Midland Naturalist 159:125-146.

Woodman, N., and N. B. Athfield. 2009. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes region of North America. Quaternary Research 72:359-363. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2009.06.009.

Wroe, S., J. Field, R. Fullagar, and L. S. Jermiin. 2004. Megafaunal extinction in the late Quaternary and the global overkill hypothesis. Alcheringa 28:291-331.